Responsive neuromodulation offers hope for patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, but progress is hindered by a disconnect between traditional materials and modern technology. Brain signaling relies heavily on ion flux, not electron movement. Unfortunately, current neural signal acquisition materials, like noble metals, interact only with electrons, leading to ion accumulation at the interface, raising impedance, and diminishing neural interrogation efficiency. Enter conducting polymers, which permit ion penetration, creating volumetric capacitors that significantly reduce impedance and enhance spatiotemporal resolution for recording and stimulation. Meanwhile, advanced CMOS-based electronics enable the development of powerful and energy-efficient microchips, such as Systems-on-a-Chip (SoCs) with thousands of channels, integrated circuitry for stimulation, wireless power and data transfer, and on-chip signal processing. Our open access article compiles insights on the ideal components for each building block and aims to foster a unified vision that bridges the gap between materials and technologies, advancing neurostimulation tools and offering a solution-centric approach to complex neuroscientific challenges.
Read out more: Frontiers | Hybrid neuroelectronics: towards a solution-centric way of thinking about complex problems in neurostimulation tools (frontiersin.org)