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Major depressive disorder: Brain signals as biomarkers for depression

UPSIDE explores the potential of non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG) as a neuroimaging technique to detect biomarkers for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). EEG, measuring brain electrical activity through scalp electrodes, has gained attention for its ability to reveal patterns associated with depression. Abnormalities in alpha wave activity, alpha/beta ratio, frontal asymmetry, and event-related potentials (ERP) have been identified as potential biomarkers. Functional connectivity studies using EEG have also shown alterations in depression-related brain networks. Despite promising findings, methodological considerations such as participant diversity and variation in recording protocols need addressing. The systematic mapping underscores EEG’s potential in understanding depression’s neurobiological underpinnings, with implications for future diagnostic tools and personalized therapies, such as the EU-funded UPSIDE project combining EEG and focused ultrasound for minimally-invasive depression treatment.

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